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Kumquat

Kumquats (Citrus japonica; formerly classified in the Fortunella genus) are an edible citrus fruit that resemble miniature oranges. They are round or oval shaped and can be eaten whole. The peel has a sweet flavor, but the fruit has a sour center. They possess high nutritional content and are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine.

Composition

  • Kumquat peel was found to contain sigificant quantities of Potassium, Magnesium, Calcium and Sodium.[1]
  • The major phenolic acids found were p-hydroxybenzoic acid that followed by vanillic, protocatechuic, chlorogenic and sinapic acids, respectively.[1]
  • The extract contained apigenin 7-glucosideflavonoid.
  • Volatiles oil analysis showed that kumquat peel essential oil was rich in monoterpenoid limonene (96.33%).
    • The oil was also composed of considerable amount of d-germacrene, α-myrecene, and α-pinene and minor amount of bicyclogermacrene and sabinene.[1]
  • Carotenoids
    • Eleven native carotenoids were successfully identified in kumquats:
      • β-carotene
      • β-cryptoxanthin
      • Lutein
      • Zeaxanthin
      • β-citraurin-caproate
      • β-citraurin-laurate
      • β-citraurin-myristate
      • β-citraurin-palmitate
      • β-cryptoxanthin-laurate
      • β-cryptoxanthin-myristate
      • β-cryptoxanthin-palmitate
    • β-citraurin-laurate and β-cryptoxanthin-laurate were the most abundant native carotenoids.[2]
    • The total carotenoid content of kumquats was high (2185.16 µg/100 g), suggesting that this fruit can contribute significantly to the ingestion of important bioactive compounds.[2]

Healing Properties

Antioxidant

Anti-inflammatory

Brain Health

Brain Aging

Protection of the brain against accelerated aging helps avoiding the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases.[3]

Disease / Symptom Treatment

Sources:

  1. Study Type: Plant Study
    Title: Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of different extracts of the peel of kumquat (Citrus japonica Thunb)
    Author(s): Mahmoud A. Al-Saman, Asmaa Abdella, Khaled E. Mazrou, Ahmed A. Tayel, Sibel Irmak
    Institution(s): Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute University of Sadat City Sadat City Egypt; Department of Plant Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute University of Sadat City Sadat City Egypt; Faculty of Aquatic and Fisheries Sciences Kafrelsheikh University Kafr El-Shaikh Egypt; Department of Biological Systems Engineering, College of Engineering, Industrial Agricultural Products Center University of Nebraska–Lincoln Lincoln USA
    Publication: Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization
    Date: August 2019
    Abstract: The objective of this work was to study the bioactive properties of kumquat fruit (Citrus japonica thumb)peel. The mineral composition (ICP-MS), phenolic and flavonoid contents (HPLC), volatiles (GC–MS), antioxidant activity (DPPH) and antimicrobial activity of kumquat peel were determined. Kumquat peel was found to be a good supplement of K, Mg, Ca and Na. The major phenolic acids found were p-hydroxybenzoic acid that followed by vanillic, protocatechuic, chlorogenic and sinapic acids, respectively. The extract contained also apigenin 7-glucosideflavonoid. The volatiles oil analysis showed that kumquat peel essential oil was rich in monoterpenoid limonene (96.33%). The oil was also composed of considerable amount of d-germacrene, α-myrecene, and α-pinene and minor amount of bicyclogermacrene and sabinene. The highest antioxidant activity was obtained using 70% ethanol extract (55.47%), while the least one was observed with n-hexane (27.05%). The antioxidant activity of kumquat extract increased from (21.31%) when the extract concentration was (63 µg/100 µl) to (64.98%) with concentration of (1000 µg/100 µl). Regarding the antimicrobial activity, the highest zone of inhibition (16.58 mm) was recorded with 70% ethanol extract, while the least zone of inhibition (8.98 mm) was found with acetone extract. Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive organism with the highest zone of inhibition (16.70 mm) and Escherichia coli was the most resistant organism with the least zone of inhibition (11.30 mm). The present study reviewed antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of different extracts of kumquat peel and concluded that kumquat peel might be used as a natural bioactive source, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
    Link: Source
    Citations:

  2. Study Type: Plant Study
    Title: Quali-Quantitative Profile of Native Carotenoids in Kumquat from Brazil by HPLC-DAD-APCI/MS
    Author(s): Helena Maria Pinheiro-Sant’Ana, Pamella Cristine Anunciação, Clarice Silva e Souza, Galdino Xavier de Paula Filho, Andrea Salvo, Giacomo Dugo, andDaniele Giuffrida
    Institution(s): Departamento de Nutrição e Saúde, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Avenida P.H. Rolfs, s/n, Viçosa 36571-000, Brazil; Departamento de Educação, Universidade Federal do Amapá, Rodovia Juscelino Kubitschek, Km 02, Jardim Marco Zero, Macapá 68903-419, Brazil; Department, of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina (Italy), V.le Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy
    Publication: MDPI Foods Journal
    Date: May 2019
    Abstract: In this study the native carotenoids composition in kumquat (Fortunella margarita) (peel + pulp) from Brazil was determined for the first time by a HPLC-DAD-APCI/MS (high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry), methodology. Eleven carotenoids were successfully identified and quantified in kumquat: four carotenoids in the free form and seven carotenoids in the esterified form. β-citraurin-laurate was the carotenoid found in the highest content (607.33 µg/100 g fresh matter), followed by β-cryptoxanthin-laurate (552.59 µg/100 g). The different esterified forms of β-citraurin and β-cryptoxanthin represented 84.34% of the carotenoids found, which demonstrates the importance of esterification in natural fruits. β-carotene and free xanthophylls (β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin) represented 5.50% and 14.96%, respectively, of total carotenoids in kumquat. The total carotenoid content of kumquat from Brazil was very high (2185.16 µg/100 g), suggesting that this fruit could contribute significantly to the intake of important bioactive compounds by the population.
    Link: Source
    Citations:

  3. Study Type: Animal Study, Review
    Title: Protective effect of kumquat fruits and carrot seeds extracts against brain aging in rats
    Author(s): Doha Abdou Mohamed, Karem Fouda, Ibrahim Mohamed Hamed, Sherein S. Abdelgayed
    Institution(s): Nutrition and Food Sciences Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt; Pathology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
    Publication: Journal of Herbmed Pharmacology
    Date: July 2019
    Abstract: Introduction: Protection of brain against accelerated aging helps avoiding the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases. So, the current work was conducted to evaluate the rescuing role of kumquat fruits crude ethanol extract, carrot seeds ethanol and petroleum ether extracts against the brain aging induced by D-galactose in rats. Methods: Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided equally into five groups. Group I was served as normal control, rats of group II were daily injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 150 mg/kg BW of D-galactose. Rats of group III, IV and V were daily injected i.p. with the same dose of D-galactose and administered orally with 250 mg/kg BW/day of kumquat fruits crude ethanol extract, carrot seeds ethanol extract and carrot seeds petroleum ether extract, respectively. After 6 weeks the rats were scarified, brain tissues were analyzed for malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) as well as histological examination. Also, the plasma was analyzed for MDA, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), creatinine and urea levels, as well as CAT, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) activities. Results: From the results, it was elucidated that the tested extracts suppressed both the reduction in CAT and the elevation in MDA either in brain or plasma and the increase in plasma TNF-α, BChE as well as liver and kidney parameters. Conclusion: The tested extracts can be served as potent protective agents against the accelerated aging parameters which may be due to anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
    Link: Source
    Citations: