Green Tea (Camellia sinensis)
Green tea polyphenols were shown to reduce UV light-induced oxidative stress and immunosuppression.
Topical treatment and oral consumption of green tea polyphenols (GTP) inhibits chemical carcinogen-or UV radiation-induced skin carcinogenesis.
Reduces appetite, resulting in lower food consumption, leading to weight loss.
- EGCG & caffeine induces not only suppression of fat accumulation but also strong anorexigenic action.
- The anorexigenic effect may be brought about via inhibiting gastric motility.
- The combination of EGCG also suppresses body weight gain and fat accumulation.
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (Anticholinesterase)
Green tea is known for its high content in tannins. These tannins greatly inhibit Acetylcholinesterase activity.
- Green Tea tannins inhibit the acetylcholinesterase enzyme from breaking down acetylcholine, thereby increases both the level and duration of action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
- There is a strong positive correlation between anticholinesterase activity and total condensed tannins.
The molecule EGCG has the ability to bind to proteins found in plaques linked to coronary artery disease and make them more soft and pliable making it easier for blood to flow through arteries and veins.
Disease / Symptom Treatment
Green tea extract contains catechins which have anti-diabetic properties.
(Carbohydrate Digestion, Glucosidase inhibitor) The Catechins within Green Tea Extract exhibit a potent inhibition of α-glucosidase activity and moderate inhibition on α-amylase (these are glucosidases required for starch digestion). The overall effect of inhibition is to help reduce the flow of glucose from complex dietary carbohydrates into the bloodstream, diminishing the postprandial effect of starch consumption on blood glucose levels.
Camellia sinensis extract shows high antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria.
Helps reduce the Risk of Heart Attack.
EGCG & caffeine induces suppression of fat accumulation.
Green Tea has been shown to have a beneficial synergistic effect when taken with turmeric or curcumin.
Study Type: Preprint: Review Paper
Title: An extensive Review of Sunscreen and Suntan Preparations
Author(s): AK Mohiuddin
Institution(s): Department of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh; 151/8, Green Road, Dhanmondi, Dhaka –1205, Bangladesh
Date: April 2019
Abstract: The sunscreen industry is achieving remarkable worldwide prominence by responding to the growing need for skin protection with fast-paced innovation. Increased consumer awareness of the harmful effects of sunlight has fueled the demand for improved photo protection. The need for broad-spectrum protection from both UVA and UVB rays has inspired scientists worldwide to research new cosmetic formulations and delivery systems. More effective sunscreen actives, emollients and novel cosmetic and functional ingredients have been regularly added to the formulator’s repertoire. Creativity in innovation has been hindered only by regulatory agencies and patent restrictions worldwide. Familiarity with the current restrictive regulations and patent law infringements has become integral to any research effort attempting to provide improved protection to individuals affected by the sun’s damaging effects. The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photo damaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sun screening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Unlike the situation in Europe where sunscreen ingredients are considered under cosmetics guidelines, the FDA is required to define sunscreens as drugs since they are advertised to prevent sunburn and, more recently, the risk of skin cancer. In the USA, the FDA has been regulating this industry since August 25, 1978, with the publication of the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. Sunscreens are considered drugs and cosmetics and therefore must be governed by the FDA-OTC monograph. With the variety of sunscreen agents used in cosmetic and UV protection products, Australia, Canada, and the European Union (EU) have also developed regulatory protocols on safe sunscreen product use. Unlike the USA though, Australia has approved 34 active sunscreen ingredients and the EU has approved 28 of these ingredients. Current FDA regulations allow labeling of sunscreen products to a maximum of 30þ, despite the many products currently available with numbers as high as 100. From a cosmetic formulation point of view, increasing the SPF number in a product is governed by simple chemical principles.
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“Endogenous And Exogenous Antioxidants Benefits.” UKEssays.com, www.ukessays.com/essays/biology/using-endogenous-and-exogenous-antioxidants-biology-essay.php. ↩
Title: The combined administration of EGCG and caffeine induces not only suppression of fat accumulation but also anorexigenic action in mice
Author(s): Litong Liu, Kazutoshi Sayama
Institution(s): Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Sizuoka 422-8529, Japan, College of Agriculture, Academic Institute, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529, Japan
Publication: Journal of Functional Foods
Abstract: To elucidate the anorexigenic action and inhibitory effect of fat accumulation by epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and caffeine, including the optimal combination ratio and mechanism, fifteen diets with several concentrations of EGCG and/or caffeine were administered to mice for eight weeks. The 0.1% EGCG + 0.1% caffeine group showed the strongest suppression of food intake and a remarkable reduction of body weight and fat accumulation; therefore, the ratio was determined to be the optimal combination ratio. Moreover, serum glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) level and hypothalamic gene expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) were promoted by 0.1% EGCG + 0.1% caffeine. In conclusion, the combined treatment of 0.1% EGCG + 0.1% caffeine induces not only suppression of fat accumulation but also strong anorexigenic action in mice. The anorexigenic effect may be brought about via inhibiting gastric motility by GLP-1 and upregulating POMC in the hypothalamus.
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Title: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate remodels apolipoprotein A-I amyloid fibrils into soluble oligomers in the presence of heparin
Author(s): David Townsend, Eleri Hughes, Geoffrey Akien, Katie L. Stewart, Sheena E. Radford, David Rochester, and David A. Middleton
Institutions: Lancaster University, United Kingdom, Emory University, United States, University of Leeds, United Kingdom, Chemistry, Lancaster University, United Kingdo
Publication: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Date: May 31, 2018
Abstract: Amyloid deposits of wild-type apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the main protein component of high-density lipoprotein, accumulate in atherosclerotic plaques where they may contribute to coronary artery disease by increasing plaque burden and instability. Using CD analysis, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and transmission EM, we report here a surprising cooperative effect of heparin and the green tea polyphenol (–)- epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a known inhibitor and modulator of amyloid formation, on apoA-I fibrils. We found that heparin, a proxy for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) polysaccharides that co-localize ubiquitously with amyloid in vivo, accelerates the rate of apoA-I formation from monomeric protein and associates with insoluble fibrils. Mature, insoluble apoA-I fibrils bound EGCG (KD = 30 ± 3 μM; Bmax = 40 ± 3 μM), but EGCG did not alter the kinetics of apoA-I amyloid assembly from monomer in the presence or absence of heparin. EGCG selectively increased the mobility of specific backbone and side-chain sites of apoA-I fibrils formed in the absence of heparin, but the fibrils largely retained their original morphology and remained insoluble. By contrast, fibrils formed in the presence of heparin were mobilized extensively by the addition of equimolar EGCG, and the fibrils were remodeled into soluble 20-nm-diameter oligomers with a largely α-helical structure that were nontoxic to human umbilical artery endothelial cells. These results argue for a protective effect of EGCG on apoA-I amyloid associated with atherosclerosis and suggest that EGCG-induced remodeling of amyloid may be tightly regulated by GAGs and other amyloid co-factors in vivo, depending on EGCG bioavailability.
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Study Type: Human Study: In Vitro, In Silico
Title: Inhibition of α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase Activity by Tea and Grape Seed Extracts and their Constituent Catechins
Author(s): Meltem Yilmazer-Musa, Anneke M. Griffith, Alexander J. Michels, Erik Schneider, and Balz Frei
Institution(s): Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 USA; USANA Health Sciences, Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah 84120, USA
Publication: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Date: September 2012
Abstract: We evaluated the inhibitory effects of plant-based extracts (grape seed, green tea, and white tea) on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, glucosidases required for starch digestion. The abundant flavan-3-ol monomers (catechins) in these extracts were also tested for their inhibitory potential and evaluated against the pharmacological glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose. To evaluate relative potency of these extracts and catechins, the concentrations required for 50 and 90% inhibition of enzyme activity were determined. Maximum enzyme inhibition was used to assess an inhibitor’s relative efficacy. Results showed that grape seed extract strongly inhibited both α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, with equal and much higher potency, respectively, than acarbose. While tea extracts and individual catechin 3-gallates were less effective inhibitors of α-amylase, they were potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase. Our data show that plant extracts containing catechin 3-gallates are potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase, and suggest that procyanidins found in grape seed extract strongly inhibit α-amylase activity.
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Title: Synergistic Antimicrobial Activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria
Author(s): Amber Farooqui, Adnan Khan, Ilaria Borghetto, Shahana U. Kazmi, Salvatore Rubino, Bianca Paglietti
Institution(s): Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy, Department of Infection and Immunity, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Immunology and Infectious Diseases Research Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan, Division of Immunology, International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong, China
Date: February 26, 2015
Abstract: Synergistic combinations of antimicrobial agents with different mechanisms of action have been introduced as more successful strategies to combat infections involving multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. In this study, we investigated synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia which are commonly used plants with different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 350 Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains belonging to 10 different bacterial species, was tested against Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution and microbroth dilution assays. Plant extracts were tested for synergistic antimicrobial activity with different antimicrobial agents by checkerboard titration, Etest/agar incorporation assays, and time kill kinetics. Extract treated and untreated bacteria were subjected to transmission electron microscopy to see the effect on bacterial cell morphology. Camellia sinensis extract showed higher antibacterial activity against MDR S. Typhi, alone and in combination with nalidixic acid, than to susceptible isolates.” We further explore anti-staphylococcal activity of Juglans regia that lead to the changes in bacterial cell morphology indicating the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria as possible target of action. The synergistic combination of Juglans regia and oxacillin reverted oxacillin resistance of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in vitro. This study provides novel information about antimicrobial and synergistic activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against MDR pathogens