Blueberries (Cyanococcus Vaccinium) are all native to North America, and were introduced into Europe in the 1930s.
Free radical scavenging.
The polyphenols and other phytochemicals contained in blueberries can be detected all throughout the brain.
Glycation is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD, where it potentiates the aggregation and toxicity of proteins such as β-amyloid (Aβ).
modulates synaptic plasticity.
(Prevents cognitive decline) Extract from grape & blueberry attenuates cognitive decline and improves neuronal function.
Microglia are a type of glial cell located throughout the brain and spinal cord. Microglia account for 10–15% of all cells found within the brain. Microglia act as the first and main form of active immune defense in the central nervous system.
- Polyphenol & anthocyanin-enriched extracts of berries help protect the brain's microglia.
- Decreases cytotoxicity in microglia.
promotes the growth of newly generated neurons!
Helps cleanse the deep pockets of the intestines.
Probiotic / Prebiotic
There are compounds of anthocyanins in the extracts of blueberries that have probacterial (probiotic) properties.
- Blueberry extract has been shown to activate the growth of all lactobacilli strains.
- Lactobacilli are particularly well-recognized as major contributors to improved gut and overall health.
Wild blueberry extracts (which have a significantly higher phenolic content compared to commercial blueberries) have been shown to attenuate cardiac cell damage (cardiomyocytes) through reduction in oxidative stress and apoptosis.
A blueberry-enriched diet has been shown to protect the myocardium from induced ischemic damage and demonstrated the potential to attenuate the development of post myocardial infarction chronic heart failure.
Disease / Symptom Treatment
Age-induced cognitive decline
Memory deficits (impaired memory)
Type 2 Diabetes
- Prevents Ameloydβeta fibrillation.
- Improves glucose regulation.
Naumann, W.D. (1993). OVERVIEW OF THE VACCINIUM INDUSTRY IN WESTERN EUROPE. Acta Hortic. 346, 53-58 DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.1993.346.6 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1993.346.6 ↩
Title: Evaluation of Polyphenol Anthocyanin-Enriched Extracts of Blackberry, Black Raspberry, Blueberry, Cranberry, Red Raspberry, and Strawberry for Free Radical Scavenging, Reactive Carbonyl Species Trapping, Anti-Glycation, Anti-β-Amyloid Aggregation, and Microglial Neuroprotective Effects
Author(s): Hang Ma 1,2,3,†Orcid, Shelby L. Johnson, Weixi Liu, Nicholas A. DaSilva, Susan Meschwitz, Joel A. Dain, and Navindra P. Seeram
Institution(s): School of Chemical and Environment Engineering, Wuyi University; International Healthcare Innovation Institute (Jiangmen), Jiangmen 529020, Guangdong, China, Bioactive Botanical Research Laboratory, Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA, George and Anne Ryan Institute for Neuroscience, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA, Department of Chemistry, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA, Department of Chemistry, Salve Regina University, Newport, RI 02840, USA
Publication: International Journal of Moleculary Science
Date: Feb 2018
Abstract: Glycation is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), where it potentiates the aggregation and toxicity of proteins such as β-amyloid (Aβ). Published studies support the anti-glycation and neuroprotective effects of several polyphenol-rich fruits, including berries, which are rich in anthocyanins. Herein, blackberry, black raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, red raspberry, and strawberry extracts were evaluated for: (1) total phenolic and anthocyanins contents, (2) free radical (DPPH) scavenging and reactive carbonyl species (methylglyoxal; MGO) trapping, (3) anti-glycation (using BSA-fructose and BSA-MGO models), (4) anti-Aβ aggregation (using thermal- and MGO-induced fibrillation models), and, (5) murine microglia (BV-2) neuroprotective properties. Berry crude extracts (CE) were fractionated to yield anthocyanins-free (ACF) and anthocyanins-enriched (ACE) extracts. The berry ACEs (at 100 μg/mL) showed superior free radical scavenging, reactive carbonyl species trapping, and anti-glycation effects compared to their respective ACFs. The berry ACEs (at 100 μg/mL) inhibited both thermal- and MGO-induced Aβ fibrillation. In addition, the berry ACEs (at 20 μg/mL) reduced H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species production, and lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide species in BV-2 microglia as well as decreased H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and caspase-3/7 activity in BV-2 microglia. The free radical scavenging, reactive carbonyl trapping, anti-glycation, anti-Aβ fibrillation, and microglial neuroprotective effects of these berry extracts warrant further in vivo studies to evaluate their potential neuroprotective effects against AD.
Title: Polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry attenuates cognitive decline and improves neuronal function in aged mice
Author(s): Julien Bensalem, Stéphanie Dudonné, David Gaudout, Laure Servant
Institution(s): Université de Bordeaux, Nutrition et Neurobiologie Intégrée, UMR 1286, Bordeaux, France, Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), Nutrition et Neurobiologie Intégrée, UMR 1286, Bordeaux, France, Activ'Inside, ZA du Grand Cazau, 33750 Beychac et Caillau, Région de Bordeaux, France, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods (INAF), Laval University, Quebec, Canada, OptiNutriBrain International Associated Laboratory (NutriNeuro France–INAF Canada), Université Laval, Faculté de Pharmacie, Québec, QC, Canada, Bordeaux INP, Nutrition et Neurobiologie Intégrée, UMR1286, Bordeaux, France
Publication: Journal of Nutritional Science
Date: 21 May 2018
Abstract: Ageing is characterised by memory deficits, associated with brain plasticity impairment. Polyphenols from berries, such as flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins, and resveratrol, have been suggested to modulate synaptic plasticity and cognitive processes. In the present study we assessed the preventive effect of a polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB), with high concentrations of flavonoids, on age-related cognitive decline in mice. Adult and aged (6 weeks and 16 months) mice were fed a PEGB-enriched diet for 14 weeks. Learning and memory were assessed using the novel object recognition and Morris water maze tasks. Brain polyphenol content was evaluated with ultra-high-performance LC-MS/MS. Hippocampal neurotrophin expression was measured using quantitative real-time PCR. Finally, the effect of PEGB on adult hippocampal neurogenesis was assessed by immunochemistry, counting the number of cells expressing doublecortin and the proportion of cells with dendritic prolongations. The combination of grape and blueberry polyphenols prevented age-induced learning and memory deficits. Moreover, it increased hippocampal nerve growth factor (Ngf) mRNA expression. Aged supplemented mice displayed a greater proportion of newly generated neurons with prolongations than control age-matched mice. Some of the polyphenols included in the extract were detected in the brain in the native form or as metabolites. Aged supplemented mice also displayed a better survival rate. These data suggest that PEGB may prevent age-induced cognitive decline. Possible mechanisms of action include a modulation of brain plasticity. Post-treatment detection of phenolic compounds in the brain suggests that polyphenols may act directly at the central level, while they can make an impact on mouse survival through a potential systemic effect.
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Study Type: In Vitro
Title: EXTRACTS OF EDIBLE PLANTS STIMULATORS FOR BENEFICIAL MICROORGANISMS
Author(s): Pallah, O V; Meleshko, T V; Bati, V V; Boyko, N V.Biotechnologia Acta
Institution(s): Uzhhorod National University, Department of Clinical and Laboratory Diagnostics and Pharmacology, Faculty of Dentistry and The Research Development and Educational Centre of Molecular Microbiology and Mucosal Immunology, Ukraine; Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Publication: BIOTECHNOLOGIA ACTA
Date: July 2019
Abstract: The aim of the work was to determine the content of biologically active compounds in berries and fruits collected in ecologically clean zones, to find out their potential use for the creation of target action pharmabiotics, and the ability of extracts derived from such products to stimulate the growth of probiotic lactic bacteria strains and representatives of commensal intestinal microbiota. The content of biologically active compounds was determined by thin-layer chromatography. We established the effect of berries and fruits methan extracts on the selected strains L. acidophilus, L. catenaformis, L. casei, L. fermentum, E. coli 058, E. faecalis (gut commensals), B. subtilis 090 (component of biopreparation), which were perspective for the creation of modern pharmabiotics, according to the results of these bacteria cultivation in the specified extracts. It was found that the investigated berry extracts were characterized by a higher content of polyphenols, compared to anthocyanins. Alycha extract mainly inhibited the growth of the most lactobacilli strains that we had tested, except for B. subtilis 090. Extracts of red currant, sweet cherry, and jostaberry stimulated the growth of L. сatenaformis, while extracts of sweet cherry and jostaberry, in addition to that of the above-mentioned lactobacilli strains, also stimulated the growth of L. сasei and L. fermentum. Blueberry and plum extracts activated the growth of all lactobacilli strains. The ability to stimulate the growth of B. subtilis 090 was noted only in the extract of alycha, jostaberry, and plum.
Citations: ↩ ↩
Study Type: Human Study: In Vitro
Title: Blueberry extract attenuates doxorubicin-induced damage in H9c2 cardiac cells
Author(s): Yue Sun, Ashley S. Nemec-Bakk, Azim U. Mallik, Ashim K. Bagchi, Pawan K. Singal, Neelam Khaper
Institution(s): Department of Biology, Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, ON P7B 5E1, Canada; Biotechnology Program, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, ON P7B 5E1, Canada; Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, St. Boniface Hospital Albrechtsen Research Centre, Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R2H 2A6, Canada; Medical Sciences Division, Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, ON P7B 5E1, Canada.
Publication: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Date: July 2019
Abstract: The objective of this study was to analyze the cardioprotective roles of 3 wild blueberry genotypes and one commercial blueberry genotype by measuring markers of oxidative stress and cell death in H9c2 cardiac cells exposed to doxorubicin. Ripe berries of the 3 wild blueberry genotypes were collected from a 10-year-old clearcut forest near Nipigon, Ontario, Canada (49°1′39″N, 87°52′21″W), whereas the commercial blueberries were purchased from a local grocery store. H9c2 cardiac cells were incubated with 15 μg gallic acid equivalent/mL blueberry extract for 4 h followed by 5 μM doxorubicin for 4 h, and oxidative stress and active caspase 3/7 were analyzed. The surface area as well as total phenolic content was significantly higher in all 3 wild blueberry genotypes compared with the commercial species. Increase in oxidative stress due to doxorubicin exposure was attenuated by pre-treatment with all 3 types of wild blueberries but not by commercial berries. Furthermore, increase in caspase 3/7 activity was also attenuated by all 3 wild genotypes as well. These data demonstrate that wild blueberry extracts can attenuate doxorubicin-induced damage to H9c2 cardiomyocytes through reduction in oxidative stress and apoptosis, whereas the commercial blueberry had little effect.
Study Type: Animal Study: In Vivo
Title: Blueberry-Enriched Diet Protects Rat Heart from Ischemic Damage
Author(s): Ismayil Ahmet,Edward Spangler,Barbara Shukitt-Hale,Magdalena Juhaszova,Steven J. Sollott,James A. Joseph,Donald K. Ingram,Mark Talan
Institution(s): Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America; Laboratory of Experimental Gerontology, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America; USDA-ARS, Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Publication: PLOS One
Date: June 2009
Abstract: Objectives: to assess the cardioprotective properties of a blueberry enriched diet (BD). Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a major role in ischemia-related myocardial injury. The attempts to use synthetic antioxidants to block the detrimental effects of ROS have produced mixed or negative results precipitating the interest in natural products. Blueberries are readily available product with the highest antioxidant capacity among fruits and vegetables. Methods and Results: Following 3-mo of BD or a regular control diet (CD), the threshold for mitochondrial permeability transition (tMPT) was measured in isolated cardiomyocytes obtained from young male Fischer-344 rats. Compared to CD, BD resulted in a 24% increase (p<0.001) of ROS indexed tMPT. The remaining animals were subjected to a permanent ligation of the left descending coronary artery. 24 hrs later resulting myocardial infarction (MI) in rats on BD was 22% less than in CD rats (p<0.01). Significantly less TUNEL(+) cardiomyocytes (2% vs 9%) and 40% less inflammation cells were observed in the myocardial area at risk of BD compared to CD rats (p<0.01). In the subgroup of rats, after coronary ligation the original diet was either continued or switched to the opposite one, and cardiac remodeling and MI expansion were followed by serial echocardiography for 10 weeks. Measurements suggested that continuation of BD or its withdrawal after MI attenuated or accelerated rates of post MI cardiac remodeling and MI expansion. Conclusion: A blueberry-enriched diet protected the myocardium from induced ischemic damage and demonstrated the potential to attenuate the development of post MI chronic heart failure.