Apples are sweet, edible fruits produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila). Apple trees are cultivated worldwide, and are the most widely grown species in the genus Malus. The tree originated in Central Asia, where its wild ancestor, Malus sieversii, is still found today. Apples have been grown for thousands of years in Asia and Europe, and were brought to North America by European colonists. Apples have religious and mythological significance in many cultures, including Norse, Greek and European Christian traditions.[1]


  • Polyphenols (Phenolic Compounds)
    • Protocatechuic acid (PCA)
      • Protocatechuic acid is a type of phenolic acid.
      • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory.
      • Protects against chemically induced liver toxicity
      • Anti-Cancer
        • PCA has been reported to induce apoptosis of human leukemia cells, as well as malignant HSG1 cells taken from human oral cavities.
      • Neurogenesis: PCA was reported to increase proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of neural stem cells.
    • P-Coumaric acid (trans-4-Hydroxycinnamic acid)
      • P-Coumaric acid is a plant metabolite which exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It also shows bactericidal activity by damaging bacterial cell membrane and by interacting with bacterial DNA. In western blot, p-coumaric is also used as an enhancer in chemiluminescent substrate.[^2]

Hydroxycinnamic acid found in many fruits and vegetables

Healing Properties

Disease / Symptom Treatment


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